Regions of low pressure are formed over the warm surface waters, causing moisture-rich air from the high-pressure regions over the other parts of the ocean to rush into the low-pressure region over the western coast off South America (if you remember, there is a body of warm surface water off the coasts of South America). This moisture rich air brings rains to North and South America, but brings drought to Asia.
Usually, the heating of the surface of the ocean waters off the western coast of South America during an El Nino begins in summer and gradually builds till the end of the year, when the ocean waters are the warmest. Then, the El Nino will be over by the next summer.
During non-El Nino conditions, the trade winds blow across the equatorial Pacific Ocean from the west, off the coast of South America, eastwards, towards Indonesia and Australia. This causes the warm surface waters of the ocean to be held back against the coasts of Indonesia and Australia, resulting in rains and monsoon seasons across Asia and Australia, and droughts in South America.
Peruvian sailors had to deal with the change in temperature of the water that affected the food change. Since this reversal of the water flow usually peaked around the Christian Christmas holiday, these sailors named it "El Nino" meaning "the Christ Child" in Spanish.
1982-83: In North America during this El Nino, there was very strange weather, while Australia suffered from a terrible drought and devastating bushfires. The countries on the edge of the Sahel Desert suffered from major drought, and the monsoons failed in the Indian Ocean. Total damages ranged from $8 billion to $13 billion, and 2,000 lives were lost.
1990-95: This El Nino wasn't known for its harshness, but for the length. This was the longest recorded El Nino.
1. What can El Niño do to the world, particularly to the Philippines?
(Ano ang mga epektong dulot ng El Niño Phenomena sa Pilipinas?)
2. What can you suggest to minimize its effects to our country?
(Ano ang pwede nating gawin para labanan ang masamang epektong dulot ng El Niño?)